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When the United States Spoke French: Five Refugees Who Shaped a Nation

“A shiny, soaking up account of a brief interval in heritage that also resounds today.” —Kirkus Reviews

Beautifully written and brilliantly argued, When the us Spoke French offers a clean standpoint at the tumultuous years of the United States as a tender country, while the Atlantic world’s first republican experiments have been placed to the try. It explores the country’s formative interval from the point of view of 5 individual Frenchmen who took safe haven in the USA after leaving their houses and households in France, crossing the Atlantic, and touchdown in Philadelphia. via their tales, we see essentially the most well-known occasions of early American historical past in a brand new light—from the battles with local americans at the western frontier to the Haitian Revolution, the Whiskey uprising to the Louisiana buy in 1803.

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Mountains, as a rule”: Braudel, los angeles Méditerranée, 1:37, forty four; “The Western settlers”: GW to Benjamin Harrison, Oct. 10, 1784, PGWPS, 2:92. On tenuous settler loyalties, see the citations in Furstenberg, “Significance of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier. ” On imperial disintegration, see specifically John M. Murrin, “1776: The Countercyclical Revolution,” in innovative Currents: country development within the Transatlantic global, ed. Michael A. Morrison and Melinda S. Zook (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), 65–90.

A few of the troops have been to descend on Florida, whereas “large detachments” have been marching from South Carolina and Kentucky to invade Louisiana. A commander of federal troops in Georgia trained Knox that warships have been congregating at Saint Marys, Georgia, correct at the Florida border (site of a U. S. army base today), besides a French infantry corporation and greater than 80 American recruits. “This armament and land force,” he warned, “will be adequate, they are saying, to take the Floridas once they please.

Y. ), seventy nine, seventy nine Grand lodge Muscovite, 161 grey, Vincent, 396–97, 398, 475 Gray’s Ferry, forty nine nice Britain, sixteen, 50, 129 constitutional monarchy in, 12, 50 French cultural effect in, one hundred and one French family members with, 68–69, seventy four, 159, 298, 386–87 French wars with, 17, 38, forty, forty three, 46–47, fifty six, 107, 219, 222, 265–66, 296, 298–99, 368, 389, 394, 432 U. S. embargo of ships from, 321 U. S. relatives and exchange with, fifty two, sixty two, seventy five, eighty one, 143, 158–59, 177, 182, 192, 253, 282, 297, three hundred, 317–23, 330–39, 351–54 see additionally England nice Lakes, 15, 33, forty eight, seventy four, seventy five, 214–15, 217, 221–22, 277, 280, 306, 314, 364 British forts in, 331, 333 Greenbush, 415 Grenada, sixty three Grenville, William Wyndham Grenville, 1st Baron, sixty two, sixty nine, 321, 331 Griswold, Rufus, 187 Guadeloupe, 291, 359, 380 Gudin, Jean Antoine Théodore, 398, 418 Guillemard, John, 229 Guinea-Bissau, sixty two Gulf of Mexico, sixteen, 33, fifty eight, 215, 219, 220, 224, 361, 387, 388 Gulf of Saint Lawrence, 214–15 Haarlem, 409 Hague, The, 38, 159, 204 Haiti, 73–74, 106, 391–94, 396 construction of, 33, 398, 406, 410, 418, 437 slave rebellion in, 6, sixteen, 17, eighty one, ninety six, 102, 392 see additionally Saint Domingue Halifax, 346 Hamburg, 246, 263, 275, 284, 297, 346–47, 350–51, 384, 418 Hamilton, Alexander, 6, 27–28, 42–43, 64–66, seventy five, ninety six, 118, 127–28, 152, 155–56, 251, 323, 329 financial institution of usa based by way of, 157 personality and character of, 142, 350 on Jay Treaty, 335 felony perform and lobbying of, 277 Liancourt and, 141–43, 196 on liberty, 297 marriage of, 203 Noailles and, 143, 150–51, 322 as secretary of the treasury, 60, a hundred and fifty, 192, 277, 305, 383 Talleyrand and, 140–44, 149, 235, 252–53, 352, 367 on Washington, 142 writing of, seventy five, 237–38, 283, 350, 381–82 Hamilton, Elizabeth Church, one hundred forty Hammond, George, seventy four, 321, 334 Hankey, sixty three Hansen, Peter, 346, 349 Harrison, Benjamin, 224 Havana, 394, 397, 398–99, 418 probability, 398 Helvétius, Madame, eleven Hemings, James, 136 Hemings, Sally, 136 Henderson, Amy, a hundred and seventy Hénin, Princess d’, 147 Henri II, king of France, 39 Higginson, Stephen, 236 Hispaniola, 379 Histoire naturelle (Buffon), 230 Holland, see Netherlands Holland Land corporation, 25, 232, 275, 277–81, 283, 318 wish, Henry, 204–5, 255–56, 258–59, 268–71, 283, 331, 402, 408–9, 409, 414 wish, John Williams, 206, 270–72, 283, 402, 409 Hôtel Talleyrand, 421 condo of desire & Co.

Now not being healthy for a winters voyage,” he scribbled in a short be aware to Hamilton, “I shall remain right here ’till Spring. ” And so the treaty went forward, carried alongside its doubtful voyage aboard a British mail packet, the Tankerville. Jay used to be clever to have stayed in London. In December a French privateer attacked the Tankerville and either copies of the treaty have been misplaced within the frigid waters of the North Atlantic. 70 through February, different ships from England had arrived in Philadelphia. They proven treaty have been signed yet lacked any information regarding its contents: the textual content was once already alleged to were added.

Four. Claypoole’s American day-by-day Advertiser (Philadelphia), Feb. eight, 1796; Aurora basic Advertiser (Philadelphia), Feb. eight, 1796. five. All quotations from Liancourt, Voyage, 6:326–27. Article on dancing: M. L. E. Moreau de Saint-Méry, Danse: Article extrait d’un ouvrage de M. L. E. Moreau de St-Méry. . . . (Philadelphia: Imprimé par l’auteur, 1796); Talleyrand aiding with proofs: Moreau, American trip, 216. 6. Alexis de Tocqueville, De l. a. démocratie en Amérique, 2 vols. (Paris: Gallimard, 1961), 2:143–44. 7. Liancourt, Voyage, 6:327.

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