By Donald Kagan
In the fourth and ultimate quantity of his magisterial background of the Peloponnesian struggle, Donald Kagan examines the interval from the destruction of Athens' Sicilian excursion in September of 413 B.C. to the Athenian quit to Sparta within the spring of 404 B.C. via his research of this final decade of the warfare, Kagan evaluates the functionality of the Athenian democracy because it confronted its so much severe problem. even as, Kagan assesses Thucydides' interpretation of the explanations for Athens’ defeat and the destruction of the Athenian Empire.
Quick preview of The Fall of the Athenian Empire (A New History of the Peloponnesian War) PDF
86 Phrynichus, in his desperation, may possibly good have was hoping that Astyochus might care for the second one letter in a different way from the 1st. most likely, a triumphant Astyochus and a thankful Sparta could honor and present the guy accountable for their good fortune. as a minimum, Phrynichus may steer clear of the doom without doubt waiting for him at the go back of his sour enemy. Alcibiades used to be now not the one Athenian baby-kisser with awesome flexibility and grandiose own objectives who was once able to betray his urban to safe his protection and strengthen his occupation.
Agis, nonetheless bearing the respect and impression given him by means of his victory at Mantinea, was once at Decelea, en joying powers strange even for a Spartan king and desirous to bring up his recognition and tool via pursuing the predicted cave in of the Athenian Empire below his management. 6 1 these Spartans who normally had antagonistic adventures open air the Peloponnesus, had preferred the Peace of Nicias, and had resisted sending aid to Sicily and constructing a citadel in Attica have been definitely much less well known in four 1 three .
As a substitute, "the stratagem of Phrynichos was once partially designed to steer the army and political scenario within the pursuits of Athens. ,,79 Phrynichus' speech at Samos used to be honest, clever, and courageous. while it did not convince, Phrynichus grew to become from oratory to trickery to avoid wasting the Athenians from the error of bringing again Alcibiades and introducing factional strife at so harmful a mo ment. Astyochus was once taken in as a result of his inexperience and basic inability. "The narrative of Thucydides definitely means that those disasters might have been as a result of the defects of Astyochus in personality and highbrow characteristics and that there's no use to hunt any further sinister clarification of them, as his exasperated troops did.
Even Phrynichus, who later will be a pace-setter of the oligarchic coup, was once condemned after ward as a terrible guy, a sycophant, and a turncoat democrat. 7 As one intelligent commentator has placed it, "all that we will be able to definitely say is that Phrynichus used to be a guy with an extended public occupation, who may be labelled as a democratic chief and encouraged sufficient belief to be appointed gen eral in four 1 1 at a complicated age, possibly at the foundation of his prior checklist in place of work. "s His colleagues should have healthy into an identical basic class and doubtless have been selected for numerous purposes coming up from their personalities, careers, and connections.
For a safeguard of the imperfect CtVTavij-yoVTo opposed to the aorist proposed by means of Classen and Steup, see HCT V, 274. For an endorsement of Astyochus' warning, see Busolt, GG l Ib , 1 495 . ·'8. eighty. 1 - three . For Clearchus and the orders, see eight. eight. 2 and 39. 2 . Busolt very plausibly areas the date of the Byzantine insurrection in early August (GG 111:2, 1496), so the fleet most likely sailed past due within the past month. 66Mindarus arrived to alleviate Astyochus no longer a lot after this second, even supposing Thu cydides is obscure approximately whilst.