By Coulter H. George
How did historical Greek convey that an occasion happened at a selected time, for a definite period, or inside of a given timeframe? the reply to those questions is determined by quite a few stipulations - the character of the time noun, the annoying and point of the verb, the actual historic interval of Greek in which the writer lived - that latest stories of the language don't take sufficiently under consideration. This e-book for that reason examines the conditions that govern using the genitive, dative, and accusative of time, in addition to the suitable prepositional buildings, basically in Greek prose of the 5th century BC throughout the moment century advert, but additionally in Homer. whereas the point of interest is on advancements in Greek, translations of the examples, in addition to a completely glossed precis bankruptcy, make it obtainable to linguists drawn to the expression of time in most cases.
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2. 15. four) regardless of the textual corruption during this passage, it sort of feels secure to imagine that Thucydides did write ἐν μηνὶ Ἀνθεστηριῶνι. forty seven right here ἐν marks the recurring courting: the competition is held each year in Anthesterion. whereas ἐν doesn't hold this strength with ἡμέρα, it isn't wonderful that it may accomplish that the following. it's going to already be transparent that, whereas the dative of time is utilized in a truly circumscribed manner, the genitive of time is much extra heterogeneous, with a community of meanings extending from limitative to routine to modal.
Sixty eight. 2) (60) καὶ ἀδοκήτου τοῦ τολμήματος σφίσιν ἐν νυκτὶ γενομένου προσέβαλόν τε τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἐκπεπληγμένοι καὶ βιασθέντες ὑπ’ αὐτῶν τὸ πρῶτον ὑπεχώρησαν And as that they had no longer anticipated this bold throughout the evening, they attacked the Athenians in a nation of panic and have been pressured to attract again at ﬁrst (Th. 7. forty three. 6) In either one of those examples, one may perhaps argue that the truth that the assault came about at evening is much less severe to the clause than in (55) and (56), yet they're nonetheless a miles cry from this type of punctual structures usual of (τῆς) νυκτός (cf.
Lots of the questions raised by way of this distribution revolve round the buildings with ἐν. whilst limitative, how do they fluctuate from people with the genitive of time? while punctual, what distinguishes them from people with the dative (and people with κατά+A and περί+A)? while durative, is there a it's because Xenophon has now not used the accusative as an alternative? The limitative occasion kind is mostly expressed by means of ἐν, yet there also are 4 limitative genitives of time. forty seven those all undergo the most obvious hallmarks of the limitative: 3 take place in unfavourable structures (Mem.
26. 1, four. 129. 2, five. four. 1, eight. thirteen. 1, eight. 20. 1, eight. ninety nine. 1, eight. 108. 1 (all with ὑπό), three. 7. 1, three. ninety nine. 1, eight. ninety one. 2 (with κατά), and seven. 34. 1 (with περί). They comprise structures that change not just πλεῖν and its compounds, but additionally ναῦς ἐκπέμπειν, ὁρμέω, and comparable verb words. Taking pairs of books jointly, and discounting distributive κατά, we ﬁnd that 1–2 have κατά 7×, ὑπό 3×; 3–4 have κατά 12×, ὑπό 4×; 5–6 have κατά 7×, ὑπό 3×; whereas 7–8 have κατά 3×, ὑπό 10×. See the dialogue on (107) above. 116 c o nc l us i o n explaining Thucydides’ utilization, we needs to manage a lot ﬁner semantic different types to explain the nuances conveyed by means of the several structures.
Moreover, a detailed examine (47) exhibits that, even the following, there's strong cause to contemplate the expression with ἐν extra bounded than that with κατά in (53): the presence of γε attracts a line among the interval while the Argives felt they have been strongest and different sessions, once they didn't. fifty eight against this, the time sessions speciﬁed by means of κατά are extra open-ended: in (52), the beginning of the xenia among Apollophanes and Agesilaus isn't really ﬁxed inside any speciﬁc period of time; and in (53), the weak spot of the Spartans’ cavalry occurs to be real at that time of time in query, yet there's no distinction made with higher energy at different instances.